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Kasturi Talukdar

Updated on 18th May, 2023 , 7 min read

Oscillatory Motion: Definition, Types, Example, Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) and Application

Introduction to Oscillatory Motion

What is Oscillatory motion? In simple terms, it refers to a motion that repeats itself after a certain period. The motion can be periodic or non-periodic, and it can be linear or rotational. Oscillatory motion is a common occurrence in nature, and it is observed in many systems, including mechanical, electrical, and biological systems.

What is Oscillatory Motion

When an object moves over a point repeatedly, this is known as oscillatory motion. The ideal condition can be approached in a complete Hoover because there is no air to stop the object in oscillatory motion friction. The vibration of strings and the movement of springs are both examples of oscillatory motion in the mechanical world, and they are the same as mechanical vibration. The periodic motion should not be confused with oscillatory motion. Objects in periodic motions repeat their movement after a fixed duration or period of time, whereas objects in oscillatory motions repeat their movement over a fixed position.

What is Oscillatory Motion Types

There are two main types of oscillatory motion: simple harmonic motion and damped oscillations:

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

Simple harmonic motion is a type of oscillatory motion where an object moves back and forth in a straight line, such that its displacement from the central point is proportional to the force acting on it. It is characterized by a constant amplitude (maximum displacement) and frequency (number of cycles per unit of time).

Some examples of simple harmonic motion include the motion of a mass attached to a spring, the motion of a pendulum, and the motion of a tuning fork.

Damped Oscillations

Damped oscillations are a type of oscillatory motion where the amplitude of the motion gradually decreases over time due to the presence of friction or other damping forces. The frequency of the motion remains constant, but the amplitude decreases until the object eventually comes to rest.

Damped oscillations can be observed in a variety of systems, such as the motion of a pendulum in a viscous fluid, the motion of a car suspension system, or the oscillations of an electrical circuit.

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM): Oscillatory Motion

The equations of oscillatory motion describe the behavior of an object that is oscillating or vibrating around an equilibrium position. These equations can be used to determine the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the oscillating object at any given time.

The basic equation of oscillatory motion is:

x(t) = A cos(ωt + φ)

Where:

  • x(t) is the displacement of the oscillating object at time t
  • A is the amplitude of oscillation, which is the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position
  • ω is the angular frequency of oscillation, which is related to the period of oscillation T by ω = 2π/T
  • φ is the phase angle, which represents the initial position of the oscillating object at t = 0.

Using this equation, we can calculate the velocity and acceleration of the oscillating object as follows:

Velocity:

v(t) = dx/dt = -Aω sin(ωt + φ)

Acceleration:

a(t) = d^2x/dt^2 = -Aω^2 cos(ωt + φ)

Where:

  • v(t) is the velocity of the oscillating object at time t
  • a(t) is the acceleration of the oscillating object at time t

It is important to note that the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of an oscillating object are all sinusoidal functions of time. The displacement function is a cosine function, while the velocity and acceleration functions are sine and cosine functions, respectively.

The equations of oscillatory motion are widely used in various fields of science and engineering, including physics, chemistry, and mechanical engineering. They are used to describe the behavior of systems such as pendulums, springs, and electrical circuits, among others. By understanding and applying these equations, we can better understand the behavior of oscillating systems and predict their future behavior.

Read More About: Uniform Motion

Oscillatory Motion Examples in Everyday Life

Oscillatory motion is a type of motion in which an object moves back and forth around a central point or position in a repetitive manner. It is a common phenomenon observed in everyday life, from the motion of a pendulum to the vibrations of a guitar string. Here are some examples of oscillatory motion:

  1. Pendulum: A pendulum is a classic example of oscillatory motion. It consists of a mass (often a metal ball) suspended from a fixed point by a string or rod. When the mass is displaced from its equilibrium position and released, it swings back and forth in a regular motion, with the amplitude and period determined by the length of the string and the force of gravity.
  2. Mass-spring system: A mass-spring system is another example of oscillatory motion. It consists of a mass attached to a spring, which is then attached to a fixed point. When the mass is displaced from its equilibrium position and released, it undergoes simple harmonic motion, oscillating back and forth around the equilibrium position with a constant frequency and amplitude.
  3. Waves: Waves are another type of oscillatory motion, in which energy is transferred through a medium in the form of a disturbance that moves back and forth. Examples include ocean waves, sound waves, and light waves. Waves can be described by their wavelength, frequency, amplitude, and velocity.
  4. Tuning fork: A tuning fork is a metal instrument that produces a pure tone when struck. It consists of two prongs that vibrate back and forth in simple harmonic motion at a specific frequency, which determines the pitch of the tone produced.
  5. Electric circuits: Electric circuits can also exhibit oscillatory motion, such as in an LC circuit, which consists of a capacitor and an inductor connected in parallel. When a voltage is applied to the circuit, the current oscillates back and forth between the capacitor and the inductor, resulting in an oscillating voltage.
  6. Heartbeat: The human heartbeat is another example of oscillatory motion. The heart contracts and relaxes in a rhythmic motion, pumping blood throughout the body. The regularity of the heartbeat is maintained by a specialized group of cells called the sinoatrial node, which acts as a pacemaker for the heart.

What is Oscillatory Motion Applications

Oscillatory motion has numerous applications in physics, engineering, and other fields. Some of the most common applications include:

  1. Timekeeping: The motion of a pendulum is often used in clocks to keep time. The period of the pendulum is constant and can be used to accurately measure time.
  2. Musical Instruments: Many musical instruments, such as guitars, pianos, and drums, rely on oscillatory motion to produce sound. The vibrations of the strings, membranes, or air columns produce sound waves that create the characteristic tones of the instrument.
  3. Seismology: Oscillatory motion is used in seismology to study earthquakes and other seismic events. Seismometers measure the motion of the ground in response to seismic waves, which can provide valuable information about the magnitude and location of the event.
  4. Electrical Circuits: Oscillatory motion is also important in electrical circuits, where it can be used to generate or filter signals. Oscillators and filters are commonly used in radio communications, audio equipment, and other electronic devices.

The Physics behind Oscillatory Motion

The physics behind oscillatory motion can be explained using Newton's laws of motion. According to Newton's laws, an object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an external force. When an external force is applied to an object, it will cause the object to accelerate. The acceleration of the object is directly proportional to the force applied.

In the case of oscillatory motion, the force applied to the object is a restoring force. A restoring force is a force that acts to bring an object back to its equilibrium position. When an object is displaced from its equilibrium position, the restoring force will cause the object to accelerate back towards its equilibrium position. This results in a repetitive motion that follows a regular pattern.

Read more about the Relation Between G and g.

Principles of Oscillatory Motion

The principles of oscillatory motion describe the behavior of an object that moves back and forth repeatedly around a fixed point or equilibrium position. Here are some of the key principles of oscillatory motion:

  1. Period: The time taken for one complete cycle of motion is called the period. It is usually denoted by the symbol T and is measured in seconds.
  2. Frequency: The frequency of oscillatory motion is the number of cycles completed per unit time. It is usually denoted by the symbol f and is measured in hertz (Hz), which is equal to one cycle per second. The frequency and period of oscillatory motion are related by the equation f = 1/T.
  3. Amplitude: The amplitude of oscillatory motion is the maximum displacement of the object from its equilibrium position. It is usually denoted by the symbol A and is measured in meters (m).
  4. Restoring Force: When an object is displaced from its equilibrium position, a restoring force acts on it that tends to bring it back to its equilibrium position. The magnitude of the restoring force depends on the displacement of the object from its equilibrium position.
  5. Damping: Oscillatory motion can be damped by external forces that reduce the amplitude of the oscillation over time. This can be due to factors such as friction, air resistance, or other dissipative forces.
  6. Resonance: Resonance occurs when the frequency of an external force matches the natural frequency of an oscillating object. This can cause the amplitude of the oscillation to increase dramatically, leading to potentially destructive vibrations.
  7. Energy: Oscillatory motion involves the conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy as the object oscillates back and forth. The total energy of the system remains constant, but the energy is transferred back and forth between potential and kinetic forms during each cycle of oscillation.

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Things to Remember: Oscillatory Motion Examples

  1. Oscillatory motion involves the repeated back-and-forth movement of an object around an equilibrium position.
  2. The amplitude of oscillatory motion is the maximum displacement of the object from its equilibrium position.
  3. The period of oscillatory motion is the time taken for one complete cycle of motion, while the frequency is the number of cycles completed per unit of time.
  4. The restoring force is the force that brings an oscillating object back to its equilibrium position when it is displaced.
  5. Damping can reduce the amplitude of oscillatory motion over time, while resonance can cause the amplitude to increase dramatically at certain frequencies.
  6. Oscillatory motion can be useful in a variety of fields, including mechanical engineering, physics, and biology.
  7. The conservation of energy is an important principle of oscillatory motion, but energy can be lost due to damping, resistance, and other factors.
  8. Nonlinearity and other limitations can make the behavior of oscillatory systems unpredictable and difficult to control.
  9. Understanding the principles of oscillatory motion can help us design and optimize systems that use this type of motion, from pendulums and springs to musical instruments and electronic circuits.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is oscillatory motion?

Oscillatory motion is a type of motion that occurs when a system moves repeatedly back and forth around a central point, such as a pendulum swinging or a spring vibrating.

What is the difference between oscillatory motion and periodic motion?

Periodic motion is a type of motion that repeats itself at regular intervals, while oscillatory motion is a type of periodic motion that involves a system moving back and forth around a central point.

What are the characteristics of simple harmonic motion?

The characteristics of simple harmonic motion include a restoring force that is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium, a periodic motion that is sinusoidal in nature, and a constant period and frequency.

What is resonance?

Resonance is a phenomenon that occurs when a system is subjected to a periodic force that has the same frequency as the natural frequency of the system, resulting in a large amplitude of oscillation.

What is damping in oscillatory motion?

Damping is the gradual reduction in the amplitude of an oscillatory system over time due to the dissipation of energy through friction or other forms of resistance.

What is the difference between underdamped, overdamped, and critically damped oscillations?

Underdamped oscillations occur when the damping force is less than the critical damping force, resulting in oscillations with a gradually decreasing amplitude. Overdamped oscillations occur when the damping force is greater than the critical damping force, resulting in oscillations that quickly decay to zero. Critically damped oscillations occur when the damping force is equal to the critical damping force, resulting in oscillations that quickly reach equilibrium without overshooting.

What is the equation for simple harmonic motion?

The equation for simple harmonic motion is x(t) = A cos(ωt + φ), where x is the displacement from equilibrium, A is the amplitude of oscillation, ω is the angular frequency, t is time, and φ is the initial phase angle.

What is the relationship between period and frequency in oscillatory motion?

The period and frequency of oscillatory motion are inversely proportional, meaning that as the frequency of oscillation increases, the period decreases, and vice versa.

What is the relationship between mass, spring constant, and angular frequency in oscillatory motion?

The angular frequency of oscillatory motion is proportional to the square root of the spring constant divided by the mass of the system, meaning that increasing the mass or decreasing the spring constant will decrease the angular frequency.

What are some examples of oscillatory motion?

Examples of oscillatory motion include a pendulum swinging back and forth, a mass-spring system vibrating, and the motion of sound waves.

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