Home  >  News & Articles  >  How to Become a Scientist In India: (Step by Step Guide) After the 12th, Types, Entrance Exams, Courses, Top Colleges, and Salary 2024

Nikita Parmar

Updated on 29th January, 2024 , 13 min read

How to Become a Scientist In India: (Step by Step Guide) After the 12th, Types, Entrance Exams, Courses, Top Colleges, and Salary 2024

How to Become a Scientist Overview

Every kid who is interested in science has aspired to become a scientist. Achieving that aim is the apex of the science area, whether it be in BiologyPhysicsChemistryor Math. Scientists can work at some of the most prestigious institutes, such as ISRO and NASA.

Who is a Scientist?

A scientist seeks facts and information that may be measured or compared using various analytical and testing methods. Scientists employ scientific procedures in their search for evidence-based results or hypotheses. A job as a scientist is not simple, but if one is passionate about it, one will have a fantastic time pursuing it.

How to Become a Scientist in India: Quick Facts

The following table explains the quick facts about how to become a scientist in India-




Science & Technology 


Ph.D. degree in a relevant science stream.

Job Opportunity

Working at a variety of reputable organizations and laboratories both in India and overseas.

Average Starting Salary

INR 9.60 LPA & above

Average Salary

INR 5.17 LPA – 8 LPA

Highest Salary 

INR 18 LPA & above

Average time Taken to become a Scientist

BSc degree normally takes 3 years to finish, whereas integrated programs may take 5 years. A master's degree typically takes two years to complete, whereas a doctorate program takes three to four years. Furthermore, reputable laboratories, research centers, and teaching roles may demand a few years of work experience.

Also read more about the BSc Nursing Salary in India 2023.

Eligibility Criteria Required to Become a Scientist

The following are some of the eligibility criteria required to become a scientist in India-

  1. The first and most important qualifying criterion for becoming a scientist is that ambitious students must have completed their 10+2 from a board recognized by the state or national government, with PCM or PCMB as their subject combination, with at least 70% aggregate marks or a comparable CGPA.
  2. Students wishing to become scientists must first get a bachelor's degree from a recognized institution or college, with science as their primary subject and a related subject combination. The subject will differ depending on whether they choose chemistry, physics, biological science, or mathematics. 
  3. Students must have a minimum aggregate grade point average of 60% and have passed each course independently.
  4. Students who wish to become scientists after finishing their undergraduate degrees must get a postgraduate degree from a recognized university/college in a relevant topic related to their bachelor's degree with a minimum of 60% in aggregate and must have passed each course separately.
  5. Students must have a doctorate or Ph.D. in their respective topic, as well as sufficient research and laboratory experience.

Types of Scientists in India

Science-related knowledge and abilities are required for a broad variety of occupations and jobs, including research, industry, regulation, and education. The following table gives detailed information about the various types of scientists in India-



Business Scientist

They help firms and other enterprises make evidence-based decisions by combining strong management and business skills with scientific knowledge. This type of scientist is self-assured in the workplace and possesses the scientific and technical competence required to be trustworthy with both coworkers and competitors. They may be found in a variety of jobs in scientific and technological organizations, ranging from R&D to marketing to the C-suite.

Communicator Scientist

They combine communication abilities with a scientific and technological understanding to inspire, enlighten, and successfully convey their message via empathy and awareness of the audience's needs, knowledge of how media and other communication channels work, and, of course, a solid understanding of the science involved.

Developer Scientist

They are also known as translational scientists, who convert previously useless information into something useful to society. These might be the development of new products or services, thoughts that influence behavior, advances in medical treatment and medicine, or the application of present technologies in unique circumstances.

Entrepreneur Scientist

They generate innovation. Their relationships and scientific expertise enable them to identify opportunities for innovation not just in the business sector, but also in the public sector and other parts of society. They start their own businesses or try to develop existing ones by combining their scientific knowledge with strong commercial and financial acumen, people management skills, and an entrepreneurial spirit.

Explorer Scientist

They are like the crew of the Enterprise, who focus on a specific conclusion or impact, preferring to discover the next piece of the jigsaw puzzle of scientific knowledge and comprehension. They are more likely to be observed working alone in a research center, institution, or company's R&D.

Investigator Scientist

They investigate the unknown by observing, describing, comprehending, and assembling extensive information and data, setting the framework for future interpreters and developers. They are most likely to be found working as part of a team in a multidisciplinary context at a university or research center, or in an organization's research and development (R&D).

Policy Scientist

They use their skills in research, technology, governance, and policymaking to ensure that legislation and policy have a sound empirical foundation. This type of scientist works and is involved in a number of settings, including government and parliament, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), advocacy organizations, and charities.

Technician Scientist

They provide operational scientific services. These are the experts we rely on in forensic sciencefood science, health and safety, material analysis and testing, education, and many other sectors.

How to become a Scientist at CSIR in India?

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, or CSIR, is a top-tier institute that works in research and technology. CSIR has 38 laboratories across the country that hold recruitment drives through which people might obtain positions all throughout the country. The following are the steps to becoming a scientist at CSIR-

  1. The CSIR provides scholarships to doctorate candidates. 
  2. The Recruitment and Assessment Board is in charge of CSIR recruiting (RAB) B.E/B.Tech./M.Sc. in relevant subjects is the minimal minimum qualification for CSIR. 
  3. More qualifications can boost career opportunities.
  4. Applicants who serve as CSIR research fellows have a higher chance of becoming CSIR scientists.
  5. Candidates can apply to join CSIR as research fellows by taking the CSIR NET JRF test, which is administered by the council.

How to Become a Scientist in India at ISRO?

Getting into IIST may be one of the most sure-fire methods to get into ISRO (Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology). ISRO also employs students from IITs, NITs, and other prestigious universities. Below are the processes to becoming an ISRO scientist in India-

  1. A degree in areas like Aeronautical EngineeringMechanical Engineering, Radio Engineering, and engineering Physics will help you get a job with ISRO. 
  2. Moreover, candidates must have a minimum grade point average of 65% in their degree.
  3. Applicants may also take the ICRB Exam in order to be employed as a scientist or engineer by ISRO.

Also read more about the ISRO Scientist Salary in India.

How to Become a Scientist at NASA?

NASA demands a variety of educational degrees. A master's degree in physical and biological sciences is the basic minimum. A doctorate, on the other hand, can jumpstart a career as a scientist at NASA. After earning their bachelor's and master's degrees, candidates must apply for NASA's various scholarships. Another requirement is that one has publications in reputable journals and referrals from other scientists.

How to Become a Medical Scientist in India?

Those interested in a career as a medical scientist can obtain a bachelor's degree in biology, chemistry, or a related discipline. Attending lessons in disciplines such as biological sciences, physical sciences, and math might also be beneficial. 

Also read more about the Great Mathematicians of India and Orbital Velocity Formula.

Other methods to becoming a medical scientist in India include-

  1. Students often seek their Ph.D. after finishing undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Students can also seek dual-degree programs to obtain both the clinical abilities required of a physician and the research skills required of a scientist.
  2. Medical Doctor (M.D.), Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.), Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.), Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.), and advanced nursing degrees are among the courses offered in conjunction with the Ph.D. study. 
  3. Medical research involves laboratory work as well as original research.

Read more about the Great Scientists of India.

How to Become a Data Scientist in India?

Data science is yet another rising business occupation. An M.Sc. in Mathematical Statistics is the basic minimum for a data scientist. Besides this, applicants must possess a number of additional abilities, including-

  1. Proficiency in coding and programming abilities.
  2. One should be familiar with statistical analysis.
  3. The candidate should have knowledge of machine learning methods such as linear regression, logistic regression, and others, as well as R and Python.
  4. Mastery of SAS and technologies such as Rapid Miner, Tableau, and others.
  5. To become a data scientist, one must have exceptional communication abilities as well as strong data intuition.

Steps to follow on How to Become a Scientist in India

One must start their studies soon after high school. Pick a scientific subject of interest and narrow it down to a specific niche. Therefore, the initial step in the procedure is to pick between PCM and PCB immediately following their 10th board examination. If they want to be scientists, they must be very strong at arithmetic. Because research in general works with statistics, expertise in math is essential.

Become an expert in your field

Have a clear notion of the niche field one wishes to explore. Choose a bachelor's degree from a variety of options such as physics, mathematics, biology, astronomy, geology, social sciences, and more. One can also take professional courses in their field of interest, such as B.Tech, B.Sc, B.Pharma, and so on.

Seek Further Education

A bachelor's degree is not necessary to become a scientist. While a bachelor's degree will give a solid foundation, master's and doctoral degrees may be required to broaden the knowledge base.

Entrance Exams to Become a Scientist in India

After meeting the numerous eligibility conditions, students must apply through several admission tests for their bachelor's, master's, and doctorate degrees. Entrance to various educational institutions differs according to university/college policies. There are a few national-level exams for a Ph.D. degree, such as the UGC NET Test, CSIR- UGC NET Exam, NCBS JGEEBILS, DBT JRF biotech entrance exam, ICMR JRF fellowships, JNU Ph.D. entrance test, JRF-GATE, and so on. The following are some of the entrance exams to become a scientist in India-

B.Sc Entrance Exams 2023-24

Entrance tests are used to determine BSc admission. Several national, state,March-May and institution-level admission tests are held throughout India. The table below contains some of the test schedules and BSc online form end date 2023 for the major BSc entrance examinations in India-

Entrance Exam 


Exam Date 


1st week of April – 1st week of May 2023

May 21 – 31, 2023


January 2023

June 23 & 24, 2023


December 1, 2022 – May 21, 2023

January 4 – May 31, 2023


June 2023

July 2023

Master's Entrance Exams 2023-24

There are several entrance exams to get into a Master of Science program. The following table  is a few of the most important university-level entrance tests necessary for admission to Master of Science programs-

Entrance Exam 


Exam Date 


2nd week of August – 1st week of September 2023

4th week of September 2023


Session I: 2nd week of March – 2nd week of June 2023

Session II: 1st week of July – Last week of July 2023

Session I: 2nd week of July 2023

Session II: 1st week of August 2023


December 14, 2022 – January 15, 2023

January 28 – February 28, 2023

Ph.D. Entrance Exams 2023-24

A few national-level entrance examinations are included in the table below along with application deadlines, conducting bodies, exam dates, and so on-

Exam Name 

Conducted By 

Application Date 

Exam Date 

Exam Type



March–May 2023

July 2023




2nd week of August – 3rd week of September 2023

3rd week of December 2023



August 30 – October 7, 2022

4, 5, 11 & 12 February 2023

Courses to Become a Scientist in India

There are numerous paths to becoming a scientist in India. To become a scientist, students must complete a number of courses. The following are some of the bachelor's, master's, and Ph.D. courses to become a scientist in India-

Bachelor's Degree

After Class 12, BSc is a common course of study for science students. It gives comprehensive theoretical and practical knowledge in a variety of scientific subjects such as physical science, applied science, chemistry, mathematics, economics, biology, agriculture, horticulture, animation, and so on.

Also read more about the Courses After 12th Science Biology.

Students who are enthusiastic about learning interdisciplinary science and mathematics can enroll in this course. The course is appropriate for students who desire to work in research areas such as pharmaceuticals, healthcare, manufacturing, and information technology. BSc Honours and BSc General are the two sorts of BSc degrees. Both are three years long and have the same criteria. Students learn the fundamental skills and information required to operate in a dynamic workplace as a researcher, teachers, lecturers, consultants, counselors, and so on. INSPIRE Scholarships, HDFC Educational Crisis Scholarship Support (ECSS), Promotion of Science Education (POSE) Scholarship, Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana (KVPY), and other scholarship possibilities are also available. Students with a BSc can continue their education by pursuing a Master of Science (MSc) or a Master of Business Administration (MBA).


The BSc Admission Procedure is mainly based on merit. Nonetheless, some colleges, such as IAT IISER, OUAT, NEST, and others, accept admission through entrance exams.

  1. Merit-based BSc Admission: Prominent Delhi University colleges such as Miranda House, Hindu College, and others admit students based on their Class 12 grades as well as their cut-off lists.
  2. BSc Admission Via Entrance Exams: Certain universities, like Aligarh Muslim University, IISER, Orissa University Agriculture and Technology, and others, provide admission through entrance tests. Students who are eligible will be summoned for an entrance exam and personal interview once their applications have been reviewed.

Eligibility Criteria

The BSc eligibility criteria may differ based on the institution chosen, and the candidate must fulfill all of the criteria to be admitted to the top BSc colleges. The fundamental BSc course eligibility requirement is a minimum of 50% in Class 12 from any recognized board. Several prestigious institutions require 60% averages. In the upper secondary level, pupils must have studied key topics such as Math, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. In India, the minimum age for admission to a BSc course is 18 years.

Top Bachelor's Colleges with Their Fees

Name of the College

Average Fees (INR)

Christ University, Bangalore

Rs. 95,000

Hansraj College

Rs. 73,545

Jain University, Bangalore

Rs. 3,63,000

Kirori Mal College

Rs. 44,685

Miranda House

Rs. 59,400

Sri Venkateswara

Rs. 43,665

Stella Maris College

Rs. 68,685

St. Stephen's

Rs. 1,29,000

St Xavier's College

Rs. 2,43,000

Master's Course

Master of Science (MSc) is a two-year postgraduate science program that provides in-depth practical and theoretical understanding in a variety of scientific subjects such as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, BotanyZoologyPharmacy, and Nursing.

Also read more about the ANM Nursing Courseand GNM Nursing Course.

Ph.D. candidates must have an MSc degree. To pursue a Master of Science program, individuals must possess certain talents such as problem-solving abilities, analytical abilities, research abilities, and so on. The MSc curriculum varies depending on the MSc Specialty.

Admission Process

To learn about the MS Admission procedure, candidates can follow the stages outlined below-

  1. Examine their eligibility for the MS admission test.
  2. Attend the examination.
  3. Examine the cut-off lists.
  4. Schools that provide entrance exam-based admission will use the entrance exam score as a cut-off point and will hold a counseling session.
  5. Students will get their final admission after the counseling session or the publishing of the cut-off list.
  6. Selected students are required to pay the entrance fee on time.

Eligibility Criteria 

  1. To get admitted to the MS program, students must have a minimum of 50%-60% in UG Science or Management from a recognized board.
  2. To be eligible for admission to the MS program, students must have taken an entrance examination such as GATECAT, or similar.
  3. Students must have a doctorate or Ph.D. in their respective topic, as well as sufficient research and laboratory experience.

Top  Master's Colleges with their fees

Name of the College

Average Fees (INR)

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham

Rs. 1,09,800

Banaras Hindu University

Rs. 6,245

Chandigarh University

Rs. 1,00,000

Gaya College

Rs. 3,040

Jadavpur University

Rs. 20,000

Jain University

Rs. 1,02,500

Jawaharlal Nehru University

Rs. 1,311

Kalinga University 

Rs. 76,000

Mumbai University

Rs. 46,835

Savitribai Phule Pune University

Rs. 21,000

St. Mira's College for Girls

Rs. 49,629

St. Thomas College

Rs. 3,980

University of Hyderabad

 Rs. 9,255

Wilson College

Rs. 10,985

Ph.D. Courses

Ph.D. Science is a research-oriented program. Students do experiments and strive to find new concepts and incorporate them into their theses through observation, questioning, modeling, and research. One of the primary goals of a Ph.D. science course is to equip students to do research on science learning and teaching in various scientific fields. Physics, chemistry, biology, computer science, life sciences, and other subjects are covered in this course. 

Top Ph.D. Colleges in India with their Fees

Name of the College

Average Fees (INR)

Christ University

Rs. 35,000

Fergusson College

Rs. 52,000

Jai Hind College

Rs. 23,235

Loyola College

Rs. 6,000 

Madras Christian College

Rs. 36,000 

Mount Carmel College

Rs. 42,000

Sacred Heart College 

Rs. 6,970

Stella Maris College

Rs. 85,000

St Xavier's College

Rs. 23,000 - 38,000

Recruiters for Scientists in India

Scientists will be in high demand in government and corporate organizations as the human population grows and technology advances. Some of the organizations in our nation that hire skilled scientists include-

  1. Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA)
  2. Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)
  3. Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES)
  4. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)
  5. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)
  6. Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO)
  7. Indian Airforce
  8. Indian Association for Cultivation of Science (IACS)
  9. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
  10. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER)
  11. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM)
  12. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
  13. Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine (InStem)
  14. International Flavors & Fragrances India Ltd
  15. Ministry of Mines
  16. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  17. National Centre For Cell Science (NCCS)
  18. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR)

Job Roles and Salary of Scientists in India 2024

The following table gives details about the types of job roles and their salary in India-

Job Profile 

Starting Salary 

(per annum) INR


(per annum) INR

 Senior Level 

(per annum) INR


Rs. 6,00,000 – 8,00,000

Rs. 8,00,000 – 10,00,000

Rs. 10,00,000 – 15,00,000


Rs. 1,00,773

Rs. 5,81,660

Rs. 7,97,430


Rs. 2,47,301

Rs. 5,89,581

Rs. 11,63,496


Rs. 1,52,051

Rs. 6,16,736

Rs. 12,22,370


Rs. 1,32,819

Rs. 2,93,865

Rs. 9,38,883


Rs. 2,31,402

Rs. 5,09,972

Rs. 13,68,460


Rs. 1,20,000

Rs. 3,00,000

Rs. 6,00,000

Marine Biologist

Rs. 99,550

Rs. 4,50,000

Rs. 10,45,437


Rs. 2,00,000

Rs. 5,00,000

Rs. 10,00,000


Rs. 7,39,000

Rs. 7,80,000

Rs. 8,10,000

Skills Required to Become a Scientist in India

If one wants to learn how to become a scientist, he or she must first understand the abilities required. These are a few talents and habits one should develop in our daily life-

  1. Developing Writing Skills- In order to acquire funds and publish research findings. As a result, outstanding writing abilities are required in this sector.
  2. Having a Solid Knowledge FoundationIt is critical for students seeking to be scientists to stay current in their field of study. As a result, students must read as many scientific publications as possible in order to stay current on their subject.
  3. Curiosity- It is a highly frequent quality among scientists all around the world. Be interested in your surroundings and the world around you. Discovery is only possible if you are interested in understanding what is going on around you and why.
  4. Locate a Mentor- In such a profession, it is critical to find a mentor who can lead you through research, opportunities, and navigating this path.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What are my 10+2 qualifying requirements?

Ans. The primary requirement for 10+2 is that you have passed your 10+2 from a board recognized by the state or national government with PCM or PCMB as your subject combination. Students must hold a bachelor’s degree from a recognized institution.

What test may I take in order to pursue a Ph.D. in India?

Ans. The admissions exam is determined by the subject you choose. The UGC NET exam, CSIR- UGC NET exam, NCBS JGEEBILS, DBT JRF biotech entrance exam, ICMR JRF fellowships, JNU Ph.D. entrance test, JRF-GATE, and others are among the top Ph.D. admission examinations.

What qualifications are required to become a scientist?

Ans. Applicants must hold a bachelor’s degree from a reputable college or institution, with a grade point average of at least 60%. Candidates for a master’s degree must get a minimum of 65%.

In India, how long does it take to become a scientist?

Ans. In India, becoming a scientist will take about 4-5 years.

What is the average monthly salary of a scientist?

Ans. In India, the average monthly income for a scientist is INR 49,668.

Can I complete my bachelor’s degree in an Indian university and then move overseas to pursue my master’s degree?

Ans. Absolutely, students can apply to an international university at any time during their academic career. You must select a university based on your subject and apply for admissions examinations.

How much does an ISRO scientist make?

Ans. It is determined by the position and credentials. ISRO scientists earn between Rs. 7,00,000 and Rs. 10,000,000.

Who earns more money, the doctor or the scientist?

Ans. Physicians make more money, but few scientists are able to create some sort of breakthrough or technology that allows them to earn more money. Because the royalty they receive is pretty substantial.

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