Chartered Accountants

By: Nikita Parmar on 2022-06-22 10:00:09

About Chartered Accountants (CA)

A chartered accountant (CA) who has undergone professional training is also qualified to give advice to customers such as firms and individuals. The professional practice of accounting, auditing, taxes, and financial evaluation for a person or organization is known as chartered accountancy. To practice professionally as a CA in India, you must have CA certification. You must finish three levels of training offered by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India to become a qualified chartered accountant (ICAI). 

In India, CA is one of the most popular professional options. This is not an easy profession to get into, but if you do, you will have a fantastic career path, income, and social status. One of the reasons people respect chartered accountants is not because of the title or compensation; it is because becoming one is difficult.

Chartered Accountant Course Highlights

The following table shows the additional information about CA:


Detailed Information

Course Name

Chartered Accountancy Course (CA course)

Conducted By

The Indian Institute of Chartered Accountants (ICAI)

CA Duration

3.5 – 5 years

CA course levels




CA Course Important Dates 2022



ICAI CA Foundation, 2022

CA Registration Date

February 21st, 2022

Deadline without the fee

March 13th, 2022

Deadline with the fee

March 20th, 2022

ICAI Exam Date

May 23, 25, 27 & 29, 2022

ICAI CA Intermediate, 2022

CA Registration Date

February 21st, 2022

Deadline without the fee

March 13th, 2022

Deadline with the fee

March 20th, 2022

ICAI Exam Date

Group 1: May 15,18, 20 & 22, 2022

Group 2: 24, 26, 28 & 30, 2022

ICAI CA Final, 2022

CA Registration Date

February 21st, 2022

Deadline without the fee

March 13th, 2022

Deadline with the fee

March 20th, 2022

ICAI Exam Date

Group 1: May 14, 17, 19 & 21, 2022

Group 2: May 23, 25, 27 & 29, 2022

Why a Chartered Accountant?

Chartered accountants are in high demand from a wide range of businesses, including banks, financial institutions, and enterprises. As a result, CA candidates have a variety of work options, and CA certificate holders can start their own auditing firm and provide auditing services to their clients. The candidates' starting wages vary from INR 5,00,000 to INR 25,00,000 per year. After gaining expertise, it may rise to INR 75,00,000 a year, depending on the candidates' abilities. The CA is often seen as a well-respected profession for those with advanced degrees. Since the examinations are so tough to pass, only a few people can become CAs. There is, nevertheless, a high demand.

CA Course Eligibility Criteria 

A Chartered Accountant (CA) course is not easy to complete. It needs a lot of passion, excitement, hard work, serious research, and commitment to accomplish it properly, despite failures and several attempts. For the following candidates, the Chartered Accountant Course is required:

  • Candidates interested in auditing, taxation, and accounting should apply for the Chartered Accountant program.
  • Candidates interested in working in corporate finance and earning a CA (or FCA/ACA).
  • Candidates who wish to start their own practice and are interested in financial issues, taxation, and other relevant topics can enroll in the Chartered Accountant Course.
  • Candidates who wish to work in the field of accounting and taxation in another nation might pursue a Chartered Accountant degree, which is recognized globally.

CA Course Qualification 

You can begin your career as a chartered accountant after completing your 12th grade or even after graduating or post-graduating. The pathways are similar, but if you are a graduate or postgraduate, you can bypass a few steps that are required for a high school graduate.

  • Route of the foundation course (after 12th)

To become a chartered accountant (CA), you must pass a series of tests, but first, you must complete your 12th grade. CA Foundation Course (formerly known as CPT or Common Proficiency Test).

Step 1: After finishing the 12th, enroll in the CA Foundation Course.

Step 2: Finish a four-month study period and take the CA Foundation Examination.

Step 3: Enroll in the CA Intermediate Course after passing the CA Foundation Exam.

Step 4: Finish a four-week Integrated Course in Information Technology and Soft Skills (ICITSS). This course must be completed prior to beginning your articleship.

Step 5: Pass both categories of the CA Intermediate Examination.

Step 6: Register for the CA Final Course.

Step 7: Complete four weeks of advanced integrated courses in information technology and soft skills in the last two years of your articleship, prior to taking the final exam (ICITSS).

Step 8: Take the final exam after you have completed your articleship or during the last 6 months of it.

Step 9: Complete your three-year training program.

Step 10: Pass the CA Final Exam.

Step 11: Join the ICAI to be recognized as a "Chartered Accountant."

  • Route of direct entry (after graduation or post-graduation)

The road to becoming a chartered accountant (CA) after graduation or post-graduate is quite similar to the one described before. However, you can only take this course if you have at least a 55 percent aggregate in your commerce graduation/post-graduation or a 60 percent aggregate if you are not a commerce graduate/post-graduate. The steps outlined below will walk you through the process.

Step 1: Register for the CA Intermediate Course.

Step 2: Complete a four-week Integrated Information Technology and Soft Skills Course (ICITSS). Before starting your articleship, you must finish this course.

Step 3: Apply for a three-year articleship or practical training.

Step 4: After 9 months of instruction, take the CA Intermediate Examination.

Step 5: Pass the CA Intermediate Examination in both categories.

Step 6: Enroll in the CA Final Course.

Step 7: In the latter two years of your articleship and before taking the final exam, complete four weeks of Advanced Integrated Course on Information Technology and Soft Skills (ICITSS).

Step 8: Take the final test after finishing your articleship or during the last 6 months of it.

Step 9: Finish your three-year training.

Step 10: Pass the CA Final Exam.

Step 11: Become a member of the ICAI to be recognized as a "Chartered Accountant."

CA Course Comparison: CPT Route and the Direct Entry Scheme 

The following table compares the CPT Route with the Direct Entry Scheme in the CA Course:



Direct Route

CA Eligibility

After 12th

After graduation, or after passing the CS Executive or CMA Intermediate Exam,


No exemptions

CPT exemptions

Minimum Time

4.5 years

3 years

Eligibility to begin articleship

After you've cleared Group I of the IPCC

Without clearing the IPCC Group I, you can join right away.

Eligibility to appear before the IPCC

After 9 months of study after CPT

After 9 months of articleship

CA Course Fees

After class 12th, the entire cost of the CA course is around INR 50,000 to 80,000. It includes all fees, such as registration fees, journal payments, orientation course prices, and entrance exam expenses.

CA Scope 

You can work as a chartered accountant in the following industries:

  • Companies and industries
  • Firms of chartered accountants
  • Consultancy businesses
  • Institutions
  • Financial market services
  • Institutions of finance
  • Practice on your own.

Chartered accountants are in great demand in coming industries. You can work for a company or organization and assist with their accounts, money, taxation, or audits. Furthermore, one can work independently and provide their services to anyone who asks them to.

Financial institutions, which are always on the lookout for trained chartered accountants, are another source of employment. Working with consulting firms is another way to put your accounting skills to use. Consultancy businesses provide chartered accountants to their clients to help them achieve their short-and long-term financial objectives.

CA Course Demand 

There is a great need for chartered accountants (CA). The Times of India stated in April 2018 that India has just 2.82 lakh CAs, with only 1.25 lakh working full-time. According to this estimate, only 44% of all CAs were active, according to this estimate.

The need for CAs is bigger than ever, given that India has 6.8 crore taxpayers and that new businesses are created every year. So jump on the CA drive and pursue this profitable career. The number of job openings is huge, and it's only going to get bigger as more businesses and organizations pop up.

Top CA recruiters 

The following are the top recruiters for CA:

Hindustan Unilever Ltd.

Tata Company


SBI Bank


Kotak Mahindra 

Reliance Industries 

Ernst and Young


Grant Thornton

Aditya Birla Sun Life 


Chartered Accountant Role

A chartered accountant has several tasks and responsibilities which are as follows: 

  • Auditing is one of the CA's guiding principles. This task includes evaluating business financial documents as well as looking at account ledgers. It is the primary focus of many accounting firms.
  • Tax Accounting is an important task that CAs must do. Taxation is a crucial aspect of running any business. They design tax plans and prepare personal and business income tax returns.
  • Financial accounting is also handled by chartered accountants. They manage substantial financial concerns, as well as deal with suppliers and clients to discuss business.
  • Budget Analysis - Chartered accountants (CA) are also in charge of conducting budget analyses in order to create and implement financial arrangements for a company.
  • Cost management is another task that CAs must complete. Management accountants assist in company account assessment and capital financial planning in a variety ofbusinesses.

CA Course Salary in India 2022

In India, the average income for a chartered accountant is Rs. 7,86,098. A CA's compensation, like that of any other profession, fluctuates according to years of experience.



1-4 years

3 lakh to 11 lakh

5 to 9 years

4.5 lakh to 20 lakh

10 to 19 years.

6 lakh to 25 lakh

CA Skill Set


Detailed Information


Explain complicated financial facts to non-CA coworkers.

Commercial Awareness

An understanding of the day-to-day developments in the commercial environment that affect enterprises.


CAs deal with money and must be ethical in order to be professional and trusted by businesses.


It is a numbers-based career that necessitates exceptional analytical abilities in order to make sound business judgments.


This needs self-motivation to continue learning and adjusting.

Chartered Accountancy: Why to study?

There are following several reasons for pursuing the CA course and becoming a chartered accountant.  

  • You should consider becoming a chartered accountant since it is a unique career that offers the following benefits. 
  • Chartered Accountants (CA) are in high demand from a wide range of businesses, including banks, financial institutions, and enterprises.
  • As a result, there are several job opportunities for Chartered Accountant applicants.
  • Candidates who get a CA license can also establish their own auditing business and begin providing auditing services to clients.
  • Candidates receive attractive beginning salaries ranging from INR 5,00,000 to INR 25,00,000 per year.
  • Once seasoned, it can reach INR 75,00,000 per year, depending on the applicants' talents.

How to Become a CA?

A candidate gets certified as a Chartered Accountant (CA) after completing a series of processes. Candidates in this discipline look at how a company's financial obligations may be managed. To become a CA, candidates must go through a number of steps, including completing eligibility requirements, applying for and receiving the requisite degree, and so on. The following are the steps:

Step 1: Students must apply for the CPT test, also known as the Foundation Course, by filling out an application. Students can take this exam while still in school.

Step 2: After completing the foundation course, students must complete the IPCC Program, also known as the Intermediate Program. Students must pass their class 12 examinations to be eligible.

Step 3: After finishing the IPCC course, candidates must complete a CA articleship. This internship lasts three years and is supervised by a professional accountant. This is an opportunity for them to practice accounting under the supervision of a chartered accountant.

Step 4: Finally, you must finish the CA final course and pass the exams to become a certified Chartered Accountant. Candidates who are in the middle of their internship can apply for the course.

CA in Abroad

  • CA in a Foreign Country: In recent years, many students have shown an interest in working as CAs in a foreign country. The Chartered Accountancy qualification opens the door to a huge range of opportunities in a fantastic profession in every sector of business and finance throughout the world. CAs are in high demand both in India and internationally. They are regarded for their specialist knowledge, competent guidelines, and honesty. Chartered Accountants advance swiftly in their corporate careers and have a high rate of professional advancement.
    • CA Eligibility in another country:  The CA exam is open to anybody with a 10+2 diploma. Although it is recommended that you get a commerce degree before taking the CA exam, you can take the exam right away if you are confident in your ability. The qualifications for becoming a CA in a particular country vary per country. The ACCA, on the other hand, is a worldwide organization that has standardized the course for all CAs. Passing examinations, gaining practical experience, and completing an online ethics curriculum are all requirements for becoming an ACCA accountant. Students must pass a total of 14 papers to achieve this certification in CA. They must have three years of work experience before they may be considered.
    • Other nations include: CAs from the ICAI are in high demand in other nations, including Canada, Australia, and Singapore, and their wages are comparable to those in the Middle East. The profile is quite similar to what we see in India and the Middle East. In comparison to India, the breadth of prospects and work-life balance are far better in other nations, at least while working in Big 4 corporations or large consulting firms. Salary increases are never a problem. You are paid far more than a CA in India, and because most of your expenses are covered by the company, your cost of living is low.

Chartered Accountant Course Advantages & Disadvantages

There are no ambiguities on the way to becoming a chartered accountant (CA). This profession offers steady work, continuous advancement, and a fair wage. On the other hand, you must stay current on financial matters, which demands continual study and research. Furthermore, there are specific deadlines that must be met at the end of each fiscal year, and the task may become quite stressful. Like anything else, chartered accounting has advantages and disadvantages. As a result, it is critical to conduct extensive research to determine whether or not this occupation is a good fit for your personality. 



Six-figure pay.

Ongoing education

Jobs in high demand

Long, boring workdays

Opportunities in the growing CA industry

End-of-year deadlines that are difficult to meet

Consistent earnings

Lots of anxiety

Chartered Accountant Course Tools

Chartered accountants (CA) used to rely on manual logs and registers to keep track of crucial data and corporate accounting. This has altered since the advent of automation and SaaS-based applications. There are several software programs available that enable chartered accountants to monitor accounts and execute a variety of activities online.

Here is a thorough overview of some of the most widely used accounting tools throughout the world:

  • Accounting software from Sage
  • QuickBooks Online 
  • Xero 
  • CA Office Automation 
  • FreshBooks

Chartered Accountant Course Tips 

The first step in the right direction is to become a chartered accountant (CA), but the next step is just as important. Consider your entire personality when hunting for work. Every business looks for certain qualities in its personnel. As a result, it's crucial to work on both your overall personality and your CA skills.

Here are some common traits or actions that may help you stand out in an interview and land your dream job.

  • Communication: Communication skills, both written and spoken, is required for each work. You will have to deal with peers, stakeholders, and decision-makers as a chartered accountant.
  • Patience: Chartered accountants work a tough schedule that requires a great deal of patience. As a CA, you are in charge of an entity's finances, accounts, and much more; any impulsive decision might be devastating. So work on your patience. This will help you to have a more stable job.
  • Motivating oneself: Chartered accountants are always learning. You must continue to educate yourself on financial changes once you become a CA. This ongoing education will keep you smart and set you apart from your colleagues. Nobody will compel you to learn these new skills, so you must motivate yourself.
  • Mindset for analysis: Chartered accountants are always learning. You must continue to educate yourself on financial changes once you become a CA. This ongoing education will keep you smart and set you apart from your colleagues. Nobody will compel you to learn these new skills, so you must motivate yourself.
  • Business awareness: Chartered accountants assist businesses with budgeting, forecasting, taxation, and many other tasks. As a result, they are required to comprehend the most recent business trends and financial markets, which are always evolving. So, keep reading to keep up with all of the shifting trends.

CA Course Books 

Here is a list of books for chartered accountants:

  • Dr. S.K Agrawal's CA Foundation Scanner Cum Compiler
  • DR S.K Agrawal's Accounting Principles and Practice
  • Dr. V.K. Jain's and CA's Business Laws Sharma, Shashank S.
  • Business Mathematics, Logic Reasoning, and Statistics by Kailash Thakur
  • Dr. P.M. Salwan and Dr. C.B Gupta's Business Economics and Business & Commercial Knowledge.

CA Youtube Channels

The following are some YouTube channels:

  • CA India 
  • CA Foundation Classes
  • ICAI CA Tube 
  • Neeraj Arora
  • CA Forums
  • A list of chartered accounting forums follows:
  • The Startup Forums at CA Club India
  • Accountant Forays for Young People
  • Gmatclub
  • Reddit


Q.1 Is it possible for a student from any Intermediate (10+2) group to join CA?

Ans. Sure. Any student who has finished his or her 10+2 is eligible to enroll in CA, but must first pass the CPT (Common Proficiency Test) as a first step toward attaining his or her CA ambition.

Q.2 In India, what are the job options for chartered accountants?

Ans. A career in accounting, auditing, corporate finance, corporate law, and taxation is available to students who complete the Chartered Accountancy Course.

Q.3 What is the average number of CA exams conducted each year?

Ans. The regulating authority for the CA examinations is the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). To become a chartered accountant (CA), a candidate must pass all three levels of the course: foundation, intermediate, and final. CA examinations (for all three levels) are held twice a year, in May and November (i.e., twice a year).

Q.4 What is the procedure for enrolling in a new CA Final course?

Ans. Candidates must fill out the Online CA Intermediate Registration Form accessible on the ICAI website to register for the CA Intermediate Course ( Click on the website for a step-by-step guide to the registration process.

Q.5 Is there any negative marking in CA exams for incorrect MCQ answers?

Ans. In the CA Final and Intermediate tests, there is no negative grading. The following papers, however, receive a bad grade in CA Foundation:

  • Statistics, Business Mathematics, and Logical Reasoning (Paper 3).
  • Business Economics and Business and Commerce Knowledge (Paper 4).
  • For each erroneous response, 0.25 points will be deducted.