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Kasturi Talukdar

Updated on 25th September, 2023 , 7 min read

Scope of Microbiology: Importance, Popular Specializations, Skills Required, Top Colleges, and Future Scope

Scope of Microbiology Overview

The scope of microbiology is vast and extends to many areas of science. Over the years, the development of microbiology has been seen in the fields of medicine, pharmacy, clinical research, dairy industry agriculture, water industry, and Chemical Technology. This has opened up many possibilities for microbiologists to pursue both research-based and non-research-based careers in the field of microbiology, thus widening the scope of microbiology and its future prospects.

What is Microbiology?

Microbiology is an expansive field of science that studies the structure, function, and benefits of microorganisms. The scope of Microbiology has been rapidly developing since it was first discovered by Dutch draper Anton van Leeuwenhoek in the late 17th century. He was also known as the father of microbiology. His hobby of grinding microscope lenses led to the creation of 550 crude single lenses with magnifications ranging from 50x to 300x. Medical microbiology is a significant component of this field, as it examines the role of microbes in human and animal diseases. Similarly, agricultural microbiology is important for understanding plant diseases, soil fertilization, and the spoilage of agricultural products. Microbiology has a wide range of applications in day-to-day life, making it an essential field of science.

Scope of Microbiology: Importance

Microbiology is an essential and invaluable branch of biology. Microbiologists play an integral role in combating disease, producing chemicals for the betterment of humanity and agriculture, and keeping the planet healthy. They are also instrumental in identifying microorganisms found in food and food-related products. Through the study of microbiology, we can better understand the microorganisms present in food, preventing spoilage and infection, and making food safer. Many scientists employ beneficial bacteria to combat pathogenic bacteria and avert food contamination.

Scope of Microbiology in Different Fields

Microbiologists are in high demand across a wide variety of industries and sectors around the world. Here are some of the most sought-after fields and areas where the scope of microbiology is massive-

  1. Food Microbiology
  2. Environmental Science
  3. Healthcare and Medicine
  4. Genetic Engineering
  5. Agrochemistry Biotechnology
  6. Pollution Control Brands
  7. Biorefineries
  8. Hospitals
  9. Universities
  10. Research Centres
  11. Forensic Labs

Read more about the Simple Microscope.

Food Microbiology

The scope of microbiology is significant in the food sector. Microorganisms play a role in the production of numerous food items, such as pickles, cheese, vinegar, alcohol, bread, and green olives.

Also read more about - How to Become a Food Safety Officer and a Variety of Food.

Environmental Science

The scope of microbiology applications in this sector is immense. Microbiologists can investigate and exploit the activities of microbes (the primary agents of decomposition) as well as use bioremediation for pest control. There are many different challenges that can be addressed in this field.

Read Recently Updated Articles - What is Water Conservation and Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies.

Healthcare Sector

The scope of microbiology in the field of medicine is increasing, as bacteria and other microbes are used for a variety of purposes, such as manufacturing antibiotics, synthesizing vitamins, and performing gene therapy to treat genetic diseases.

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Genetic Engineering

The breadth of microbiology in this field is expansive due to its climbing popularity. Microbes' genetic material is altered to create useful and valuable products like hormones, enzymes, and more.

Careers in Microbiology Scope

Due to the increasing awareness and recognition of the value of Microbiology, many individuals are drawn to this field to pursue some of the top-paying courses after 12th science. Here are some of the top career paths in Microbiology-



 Salary (INR)


Biotechnologists are responsible for researching and developing products based on the physical, chemical, and genetic properties of microorganisms. They work in a variety of fields, such as agriculture, pharmaceutics, genetics, and food sciences, to create user-friendly products with a wide range of applications.

Rs. 4,80,000

Food Microbiologist

Food microbiologists are experts in controlling the spread of foodborne diseases, researching microbes, conditions, packaging, food poisoning, legislation, and more. They work in educational institutes, NGOs, government agencies, government, and private agencies to specialize in food biotechnology and related disciplines.

Rs. 5,00,000

Medicinal Chemist

Medicinal chemists are key players in the pharmaceutical sector, responsible for identifying, designing, and optimizing drugs with chemical compounds. Furthermore, they have the potential to develop new techniques for creating drugs. This is an attractive career option for those interested in pursuing a career in biochemistry.

Rs. 5,50,000


Microbiology is an expansive field with applications in many different areas, including pharmacology. Pharmacists use microbiology to identify and study the interactions between living organisms and substances, in order to develop new pharmaceutical products.

Rs. 8,00,000


People who suffer from allergies may visit an allergist/immunologist to get help in diagnosing, treating, and managing their condition. This healthcare professional specializes in conditions that affect the immune system, and is able to provide tailored advice and treatments to reduce symptoms and improve overall health.

Rs. 15,50,000


A mycologist specializes in the diversity and evolution of mushroom-forming fungi. His work involves examining the various living organisms that make up the fungi kingdom, such as molds, yeast, and mushrooms.

Rs. 4,33,536


Microbiologists investigate microscopic organisms that lead to illnesses, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and algae. They research their identification and growth to comprehend their qualities, with the end goal of hindering, diagnosing, and treating infectious diseases.

Rs. 3,12,740

Biomedical scientist

Biomedical scientists employ scientific research to enhance human wellbeing. They create experiments to evaluate and devise new treatment methods, investigate pathogens and long-term diseases by examining medical data, and construct social programs that can result in better population health.

Rs. 5,81,325


A professor is an educator of the highest rank, occupying the top tier in the academic hierarchy and imparting knowledge to students at colleges and universities. They are superior to adjuncts and lecturers in terms of prestige and responsibility.

Rs. 4,30,797

Water quality Laboratory Technician

Water quality technicians are tasked with overseeing the operation of control systems and ensuring that the machinery in water filtration and treatment plants is running optimally to guarantee safe drinking water.

Rs. 1,83,126

Food Technologist/Scientist

A food scientist is responsible for researching, developing, and testing various ingredients and foods to ensure they are safe for human consumption.

Rs. 7,50,000

Cosmetic Scientists

Cosmetic science majors explore the creative, scientific, and commercial aspects of cosmetics through coursework and an internship. They gain knowledge on how to create, formulate, and manufacture cosmetics and personal care items. They also learn about regulations and how to evaluate products for safety, efficacy, and quality.

Rs. 4,70,400

Clinical Research Associate

A Clinical Research Associate (CRA), also known as a Clinical Monitor or Trial Monitor, is a health-care professional engaged in a variety of tasks related to medical research, with a particular emphasis on clinical trials.

Rs. 3,44,254

Sales or Technical Representative

The Technical Sales Representative will serve as a connection between the company sales team and customers, giving them data, assistance, upkeep, and fixes related to purchased apparatus.

Rs. 4,30,000

Research Assistant

A research assistant is an employee, typically on a temporary agreement, of a university, research institute, or private organization. RAs are not autonomous and must follow the instructions of a supervisor or principal investigator. They are not directly responsible for the results of the research.

Rs. 3,73,000

Clinical and Veterinary Microbiologist

Veterinary microbiologists are specialized veterinarians who focus on the research and analysis of microorganisms that can cause disease in animals. They specialize in areas such as bacteriology and mycology, virology, parasitology, and immunology.

Rs. 6,75,078

Quality Assurance Technologists

Quality assurance technicians conduct technical inspections, tests, and monitoring to identify processing, manufacturing, and other defects.

Rs. 5, 54,000

Popular Specializations for the Scope of Microbiology

Here are some of the specializations available in the field of microbiology-

  1. Agricultural Microbiology
  2. Industrial Microbiology
  3. Evolutionary Microbiology
  4. Nano Microbiology
  5. Cellular Microbiology
  6. Soil Microbiology
  7. Veterinary Microbiology
  8. Generation Microbiology
  9. Microbial
  10. Water Microbiology
  11. Pharmaceutical Microbiology
  12. Microbial Genetics
  13. Environmental Microbiology

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Skills Required for a Microbiologist

To become a microbiologist, the following skills are necessary-

  1. Strong Analytical Skills: Having strong analytical skills enables one to gather, arrange, visualize, and comprehend information. These skills allow one to identify patterns, draw conclusions, and devise solutions that can increase employee productivity and improve a company's overall financial performance.
  2. Problem-Solving, Excellent Communication, and Writing Abilities: Employees with strong problem-solving skills are key to the success of any team. They are able to quickly identify problems, brainstorm and analyze potential solutions, and then implement the best one. Team player and leadership skills: Having strong leadership skills is essential for executives to make sound decisions about their company's mission and goals, delegate tasks efficiently, motivate their team, and communicate effectively.
  3. Proficiency in Relevant Computer Programs and Statistics: Computer skills refer to a person's knowledge and ability to use a computer and related technology. The basics include being able to turn the computer on and off and locate files, while more advanced skills involve programming and problem-solving.

Top Colleges in India to Pursue Microbiology Courses

The following are some of the colleges and universities in India to pursue microbiology-

  1. Delhi University
  2. Bharath University, Chennai
  3. Amity University, Noida, U.P.
  4. Jiwaji University, Faculty of Sciences & Faculty of Life Sciences
  5. Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya
  6. Christian Medical College, Vellore

Scope of Microbiology: Recruiters

Below is the list of the premier recruiting agencies for microbiologists in India-

  1. Pfizer
  2. The Indian Hotels Company Ltd.
  3. Lakshmi Life Sciences Ltd.
  4. Alpha-Pharma Healthcare India Pvt. Ltd
  5. Krauter Healthcare Ltd.

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Future Scope of Microbiology

In the future, with the help of microbiology, we must develop creative solutions to combat diseases, reduce pollution, and nourish the ever-growing global population. To do so, we must explore host-pathogen relationships, examine the role of microorganisms, discover new medicines and vaccines, use molecular biology or rDNA, and generate food sources of the highest quality, which can also be used to produce enzymes for industrial applications. Additionally, we must find ways to degrade toxic and harmful waste and pollutants, and use vectors to treat ailments and enhance the productivity of agricultural crops.


Biotechnology has revolutionized the way we look at and interact with the world. It has enabled us to develop new medicines and treatments, improve crop yields and food production, and create new products and materials. Despite its potential for misuse, biotechnology has the potential to improve the quality of life for people around the world and to help us address many of our environmental challenges. With careful oversight and responsible research, biotechnology can continue to be a powerful force for good.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is the scope and importance of microbiology?

Ans. Microbiology is an applied science that has far-reaching implications in a variety of fields, including genetics, biochemistry, food science, ecology, immunology, agriculture, and medicine. These small organisms are of immense importance when it comes to biotechnology.

Is microbiology a good career?

Ans. Microbiology is an expanding field with great career opportunities for qualified people. Most of the practical research projects that microbiologists are involved in require the involvement of specialists from various backgrounds, such as geology, chemistry, and medicine.

Are microbiologists in demand?

Ans. The rate of employment for microbiologists is anticipated to grow by 5%, which is slower than other occupations, from 2020 to 2030. Even though job growth is sluggish, approximately 2,000 new job opportunities should appear in the field of microbiology annually, on average, over the upcoming decade.

Is a microbiologist a doctor?

Ans. A doctor with a medical degree specializing in microbiology treats patients with infections. In the laboratory, both physicians and non-doctors, known as microbiologists, work together to oversee the work and assess the outcomes.

What are the eight fields of microbiology?

Ans. The 8 fields of microbiology are listed- Bacteriology, Immunology, Mycology, Nematology, Parasitology, Phycology, Protozoology, and Virology. Bacteriology focuses on the study of bacteria, Immunology looks at the relationships between pathogens and their hosts, Mycology is the exploration of fungi, Nematology studies nematodes (roundworms), Parasitology examines parasites, Phycology covers algae, Protozoology looks at protozoa, and Virology is concerned with viruses.

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