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Home > News & Articles > What Is Acceleration - Formula, Unit, Examples, Types & Class 10 Solved Questions
Updated on 15th June, 2023 , 10 min read
Acceleration is a fundamental concept in physics that is essential to understanding motion. It can be defined as the rate of change of velocity over time. In this blog, we will cover everything you need to know about acceleration, including its definition and formula, types of acceleration, uniform and non-uniform acceleration, tangential and centripetal acceleration, and special cases like uniform acceleration and circular motion. We will also dive into torque and angular acceleration, radius and its effect on acceleration, CBSE Class XII-related questions on acceleration, sample questions on acceleration, and additional resources on velocity, rotation, and Schwarzschild radius. So buckle up as we take you through this exciting journey of exploring the world of acceleration!
Acceleration refers to how quickly an object's velocity changes over time. It is calculated using the formula a = (v_f - v_i) / t. There are various types of acceleration, including uniform, non-uniform, positive, negative, and centripetal. Real-world examples of acceleration include a car accelerating or decelerating and a rollercoaster changing direction.
Acceleration refers to the rate of change of velocity over time and is measured in meters per second squared (m/s²). It's a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction. The formula for acceleration is given by a = (v_f - v_i) / t,
Where,
v_f represents the final velocity
v_istands for initial velocity
t denotes the time interval.
Acceleration can either be positive or negative based on the direction of motion. Different types of acceleration include uniform, non-uniform, centripetal, and tangential acceleration. You can calculate it using the average or instantaneous acceleration formula. Examples of acceleration in real-life scenarios include a car coming to a halt at a traffic signal and rotation along a circular track.
Positive and negative acceleration are two types of motions that are widely observed in different objects around us.
Uniform and non-uniform acceleration are two different types of accelerations observed in motion.
Acceleration refers to the rate of change in an object's velocity over a period of time. This vector quantity is calculated using the average acceleration formula: Δv/Δt.
The SI unit for acceleration is meters per second squared (m/s²) or kilometres per hour squared (km/h²).
It plays an important role in both linear and rotational motion where it denotes the change in velocity with respect to time. By dividing the difference between initial and final velocities by the time interval taken for that change to occur, we can calculate an object's average acceleration. This calculation considers several parameters such as the magnitude of acceleration, the direction of motion, positive direction and opposite direction and so on.
The rate of change of velocity with respect to time is known as instantaneous acceleration. It is a vector quantity that can either be positive, negative or zero depending on the direction of motion. A change in velocity divided by the corresponding time interval gives us its magnitude, which is measured in SI units such as km/sec or m/sec^2. It plays an important role in determining tangential acceleration, radial acceleration, angular velocity, torque, and so on. Its formula involves variables such as initial velocity, final velocity, displacement, radius r, period of time elapsed, and the net force acting on an object.
The Velocity-time graph shows how an object's velocity changes over time. It's a great tool to understand the rate of change of velocity (acceleration). The slope reveals if acceleration is positive or negative while the zero slope implies that there's no acceleration. Moreover, it tells you about the total displacement or distance travelled by the object through the area under the curve. This graph is particularly useful when studying linear motion where speed changes over time.
Adding more secondary key terms like initial and final velocity, a vector quantity, and rotational motion parameters like radius r and angular velocity omega can help better understand how this graph impacts an object's movement.
Objects moving in a circular path experience both tangential acceleration and centripetal acceleration. Tangential acceleration refers to the rate of change of an object's speed along the circle, while centripetal acceleration refers to the inward force that keeps the object moving in a curved path. You can calculate tangential acceleration by using the formula a = Δv/Δt,
Where,
Δv is the change in velocity over a period of time Δt.
Centripetal acceleration can be calculated using the formula a = v^2/r
Where,
v is the speed of an object moving along a circular path with a radius r.
Some examples of objects experiencing tangential and centripetal acceleration include amusement park rides like roller coasters and merry-go-rounds, as well as objects moving in a circular motion due to gravitation or rotation.
Uniform acceleration refers to an object that undergoes consistent changes in velocity over a specific period of time.
This type of motion can be calculated using the formula:
a = (v_f - v_i) / t.
On the other hand, circular motion requires an object to experience uniform centripetal acceleration directed towards the centre of its circular path.
Its mathematical representation is given by the formula: a_c = v^2 / r,
Where,
v stands for velocity
r for radius
As you can see, these types of special cases have profound applications in areas such as rotational motion and gravitation, both essential components in physics.
Acceleration is a vector quantity that signifies the rate of change of an object's velocity over time. This implies that it has both magnitude and direction. It is measured in units like m/s² or ft/s²; alternatively, km/h² or mi/h² may be used. You can employ conversion factors or online unit converters to switch between different units. Uniform acceleration occurs when there is a constant change in velocity over time; meanwhile, circular motion results in continuous changes in the direction of the acceleration. Both have specific formulas for calculating their respective accelerations.
The table below shows the difference between Velocity and Acceleration:
Property |
Velocity |
Acceleration |
Definition |
The direction and speed of an object's motion. |
How rapidly an object's velocity is changing. |
Units |
Meters per second (m/s) |
Meters per second squared (m/s^2) |
Direction |
Acceleration always points in the direction of the change in velocity. |
Acceleration can point in any direction, depending on the object's motion. |
Constant acceleration |
Uniform acceleration happens when an object's velocity changes at a constant rate over equal time intervals. |
Circular motion causes continuous changes in both speed and direction, resulting in constantly changing acceleration. |
Importance |
It's important to differentiate between acceleration and velocity to precisely describe and predict an object's movement. |
Acceleration is a key concept in physics, and it is used to describe a wide variety of phenomena, including the motion of planets, the trajectory of projectiles, and the behavior of waves. |
Retardation and deceleration occur when an object's velocity decreases due to external factors like friction or air resistance. These forces cause a change in the object's speed and direction, resulting in a negative or decelerating acceleration. When an object moves at a constant speed in a straight line, its rate of change of velocity or acceleration is zero. However, if there is a net force acting against its direction of motion, it experiences deceleration, which can be calculated using the acceleration formula involving parameters like initial and final velocities along with time intervals. This formula can also be used to determine the average acceleration experienced by an object during a specific period.
The magnitude of acceleration, in the case of circular motion, depends highly on the radius. This is because a larger radius means higher linear velocity, which results in a higher rate of change of direction or acceleration. To calculate the acceleration of an object moving in a circle, we must consider parameters such as torque, a moment of inertia and radial acceleration (acceleration directed towards the centre). All these factors contribute towards calculating the rate of change of angular velocity and hence, resulting in acceleration. It is essential to understand that moment of inertia represents an object's resistance to its rotation around an axis while torque causes rotational motion. Therefore, the increasing radius increases the centrifugal force acting on an object undergoing circular motion resulting in increased acceleration towards the centre.
This section explores additional resources related to motion.
Understanding these parameters can help solve problems involving displacement, deceleration, tangential acceleration, and circular motion.
Answer: Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. It is measured in meters per second squared (m/s^2).
Answer: There are two types of acceleration:
Answer: The different factors that affect acceleration are:
Answer: Some examples of acceleration in everyday life are:
Answer: Some applications of acceleration in science and technology are:
Solution:
We know that acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.
So, if a car accelerates uniformly at
2 m/s² for 5 seconds
Its velocity will increase by 2 m/s every second.
After 5 seconds, its velocity will be 2 * 5 = 10 m/s.
Solution:
We know that the centripetal acceleration is given by a = v²/r,
Where,
v is the orbital speed
r is the distance from the centre of the Earth.
So, if a satellite is orbiting the Earth at a height of 2000 km and its orbital speed is 7.8 km/s, its centripetal acceleration will be a = (7.8 km/s)² / 2000 km = 0.0039 m/s².
Acceleration is a fundamental concept in physics that describes the rate of change in velocity over time. Whether it's positive, negative, or zero acceleration, uniform or non-uniform acceleration, or tangential or centripetal acceleration, understanding these concepts and their formulas is crucial to mastering the subject. To learn more about acceleration, its types, formulas and equations, check out our comprehensive blog that covers everything from CBSE Class XII-related questions to sample questions on this topic. Also, explore additional resources such as velocity, rotation, and Schwarzschild radius to deepen your knowledge.
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By - Nikita Parmar 2024-05-24 16:30:15 , 4 min readAcceleration is the rate at which an object’s velocity changes. It is measured in meters per second squared (m/s^2).
The formula for acceleration is a = F/m, where a is acceleration, F is force, and m is mass.
There are two types of acceleration: linear acceleration and angular acceleration. Linear acceleration is the change in velocity in a straight line. Angular acceleration is the change in angular velocity, which is the velocity of rotation.
Some examples of acceleration include a car speeding up, a ball falling down, and the Earth rotating around the Sun.
Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes, while velocity is the speed and direction of an object’s motion.
Force is the cause of acceleration, while acceleration is the effect of force.
The greater the mass of an object, the greater the force required to accelerate it.
The greater the acceleration of an object, the greater the change in velocity over time.
Acceleration is used in a variety of applications, including physics, engineering, and sports.
Some common mistakes people make when calculating acceleration include forgetting to convert units, using the wrong formula, and making rounding errors.