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Kasturi Talukdar

Updated on 24th April, 2023 , 8 min read

Natural Rubber: Properties, Production, Applications, History and Uses

Natural Rubber Overview

Natural rubber, also known as latex or India rubber, is a versatile material that has been used for various applications for centuries. It is derived from the sap of the rubber tree, scientifically known as Hevea brasiliensis, which is native to the Amazon rainforest in South America. Natural rubber is known for its unique properties, including high elasticity, excellent tensile strength, and resistance to wear and tear, making it an essential material in many industries. In this article, we will explore in detail the properties, production, and uses of natural rubber.

What is Natural Rubber?

Natural rubber, also known as latex or gum rubber, is a flexible and elastic material that is derived from the milky sap or latex of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). The rubber tree is native to the Amazon rainforest in South America and is now widely cultivated in tropical regions around the world, including countries like India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Vietnam, which are major producers of natural rubber.

The process of obtaining natural rubber starts with tapping the rubber tree. Incisions are made on the tree's bark, and the milky latex sap that oozes out is collected in cups or containers. The latex is then processed to remove impurities and solidified into sheets or blocks, which are then shipped to manufacturers for further processing into various rubber products.

The History of Natural Rubber





Discovery of Native Uses of Rubber

Indigenous tribes in South America discover the properties of rubber, and use it for various purposes, such as making footwear and waterproof containers.


Charles de la Condamine's Expedition

French scientist Charles de la Condamine leads an expedition to South America and brings back samples of rubber to Europe for scientific study.


First Scientific Description of Rubber

French chemist Francois Fresnau publishes the first scientific description of rubber, identifying its unique properties and potential uses.


Charles Macintosh's Invention of Waterproof Fabric

Scottish chemist Charles Macintosh invents a method for waterproofing fabric by applying a layer of rubber between two layers of cloth, creating the famous Mackintosh raincoat.


Charles Goodyear's Discovery of Vulcanization

American inventor Charles Goodyear discovered the process of vulcanization, which involves heating rubber with sulfur to create a more durable and elastic material.


Commercial Rubber Plantations Established

Rubber trees were introduced into British colonies in Southeast Asia, leading to the establishment of commercial rubber plantations and the rise of the rubber industry.


John Boyd Dunlop's Invention of Pneumatic Tire

Scottish inventor John Boyd Dunlop patents the pneumatic tire, revolutionizing transportation and creating a huge demand for rubber in the automotive industry.

Early 20th century

Expansion of Rubber Industry

Rubber production expands rapidly in countries like Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand, becoming a major global commodity.


Development of Synthetic Rubber

German chemists Fritz Hofmann and Karl Ziegler developed the first synthetic rubber, known as Buna rubber, as a substitute for natural rubber during World War I.


Rubber Boom and Economic Importance

Rubber becomes a critical commodity in the global economy, driving economic growth in rubber-producing countries and spurring technological advancements in rubber processing and manufacturing.


Synthetic Rubber's Role in World War II

Synthetic rubber played a crucial role in World War II, as it was used to produce tires, belts, hoses, and other rubber products for military use.


Development of New Rubber Applications

Rubber finds new applications in various industries, including automotive, aviation, consumer goods, and healthcare, leading to further advancements in rubber technology.


Sustainability and Environmental Concerns

Concerns about deforestation, biodiversity loss, and the environmental impacts of rubber production led to the development of sustainable rubber production practices, certification schemes, and alternative sources of natural rubber.


Ongoing Research and Innovation in Rubber Industry

The rubber industry continues to evolve with ongoing research and innovation in areas such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, and recycling to improve the properties, sustainability, and applications of natural and synthetic rubber.

Properties of Natural Rubber

Natural rubber, also known as latex, is a unique material with several key properties that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. Some of the main properties of natural rubber include:

  1. Elasticity:Natural rubber is highly elastic, meaning it can stretch and return to its original shape without permanent deformation. This property makes it ideal for applications that require flexibility, such as tires, gloves, and footwear.
  2. Durability: Natural rubber is a resilient material that can withstand repeated stress, wear, and tear. It has excellent tensile strength, tear resistance, and abrasion resistance, making it suitable for applications that require long-lasting performance, such as conveyor belts, seals, and hoses.
  3. Chemical Resistance: Natural rubber exhibits good resistance to a wide range of chemicals, including acids, alkalis, and solvents. This property makes it suitable for use in applications where exposure to chemicals is expected, such as in the automotive, healthcare, and agricultural industries.
  4. Water Resistance:Natural rubber has a high degree of water resistance, making it ideal for use in applications that involve exposure to moisture or water, such as marine applications, roofing materials, and sealants. It also resists swelling when exposed to water, which is an important property in various applications.
  5. Electrical Insulation: Natural rubber has excellent electrical insulating properties, making it suitable for use in electrical cables, insulation materials, and gloves. It can withstand high voltages without conducting electricity, providing safety in electrical applications.
  6. Heat Resistance:Natural rubber has moderate heat resistance, making it suitable for use in applications that involve moderate temperatures. However, it can degrade when exposed to high temperatures for extended periods, limiting its use in high-temperature applications.
  7. Biodegradability: Natural rubber is a renewable and biodegradable material, making it environmentally friendly compared to synthetic rubbers. It decomposes naturally over time, reducing its impact on the environment.
  8. Hypoallergenic: Natural rubber is hypoallergenic, meaning it has a low likelihood of causing allergic reactions. This property makes it suitable for use in applications that involve direct contact with the skin, such as medical gloves and other healthcare products.
  9. Adhesion:Natural rubber has good adhesive properties, allowing it to bond well with other materials. This property makes it suitable for use in adhesives, coatings, and sealants.
  10. Softness and Comfort:Natural rubber has a soft and smooth texture, providing comfort in applications such as gloves, footwear, and apparel. It is also flexible, allowing for easy shaping and forming into various products.

Production of Natural Rubber

The production of natural rubber involves several stages, from the cultivation of rubber trees to the processing of latex into usable rubber. Let's take a closer look at the steps involved in the production of natural rubber:

  1. Cultivation of Rubber Trees:Natural rubber is primarily derived from the latex of the Hevea brasiliensis tree, also known as the rubber tree. Rubber trees are typically grown in tropical and subtropical regions, where the climate and soil conditions are suitable for their cultivation. The trees are typically planted as seeds or seedlings in well-drained soils and require adequate sunlight, rainfall, and temperature to grow.
  2. Tapping Latex:Once the rubber trees reach maturity, which usually takes about 5-7 years, they are ready for latex extraction. Latex is a milky fluid that is present in the inner bark of the rubber tree. To tap latex, a diagonal incision is made in the bark, and the latex oozes out and is collected in a cup attached to the tree. This process is usually done early in the morning to ensure maximum latex flow.
  3. Coagulation: After collection, the latex is treated with coagulating agents to solidify it into a rubber-like mass. Common coagulating agents used in natural rubber production include acetic acid, formic acid, and lime. The coagulation process helps in separating the solid rubber from the liquid part of the latex.
  4. Collection and Washing:Once coagulated, the solid rubber is collected and washed to remove impurities, such as dirt, bark, and other debris. This is typically done by hand or using mechanical equipment to ensure the rubber is clean and free from contaminants.
  5. Sheet Formation and Drying:The coagulated and washed rubber is then rolled into sheets or pressed into moulds to form blocks or other shapes. The sheets or blocks are then dried, usually by hanging them in open air or using mechanical dryers. Drying helps to reduce the moisture content of the rubber and prevents spoilage.
  6. Smoking and Curing:In some cases, the rubber sheets or blocks are smoked to improve their preservation and storage properties. Smoking involves exposing the rubber to smoke from burning wood or other materials, which imparts a brownish colour and helps in preventing fungal or bacterial growth. After smoking, the rubber is typically cured in ovens or under the sun to further dry and harden it.
  7. Grading and Packaging:Once dried and cured, the natural rubber sheets or blocks are graded based on their quality and properties. The rubber is sorted based on factors such as colour, cleanliness, thickness, and moisture content. Graded rubber is then packaged in bales or other suitable containers for transportation and storage.
  8. Processing:The processed natural rubber can then be used as a raw material in various industries. It can be further processed using different techniques, such as milling, calendaring, and extrusion, to produce different types of rubber products, such as tires, belts, hoses, gloves, footwear, and many other applications.

Natural Rubber Uses

Natural rubber, also known as latex, is used in a wide range of applications across various industries due to its unique properties. Some of the common uses of natural rubber include:

  1. Automotive Industry:Natural rubber is widely used in the automotive industry to produce tires, belts, hoses, gaskets, and other rubber components. Its excellent elasticity, durability, and resistance to wear make it ideal for use in tires, providing traction, grip, and safety on the road.
  2. Consumer Goods:Natural rubber is used in a variety of consumer goods, such as gloves, footwear, balloons, toys, and sports equipment. Its soft and elastic nature makes it ideal for these applications, providing comfort, flexibility, and performance.
  3. Industrial Applications:Natural rubber is used in various industrial applications, including conveyor belts, hoses, seals, and anti-vibration mounts. Its resilience, flexibility, and resistance to chemicals and abrasion make it suitable for use in industrial environments where durability and performance are crucial.
  4. Healthcare Industry:Natural rubber is used in the production of medical gloves, surgical tubing, and other medical devices. Its hypoallergenic properties and high elasticity make it ideal for these applications, ensuring safety and comfort for patients and healthcare professionals.
  5. Construction Industry:Natural rubber is used in the construction industry for applications such as sealants, adhesives, and roofing materials. Its waterproof properties and ability to bond well with other materials make it ideal for these applications, providing protection against moisture and improving the durability of construction materials.
  6. Electrical Industry:Natural rubber is used in electrical cables, insulation materials, and electrical gloves due to its excellent electrical insulating properties. It provides protection against electrical shocks, and its flexibility allows for easy installation in various electrical applications.
  7. Marine Industry:Natural rubber is used in marine applications, such as boat fenders, dock bumpers, and marine hoses, due to its resistance to water, salt, and UV radiation. Its elasticity and durability make it suitable for these applications, providing protection and durability in marine environments.
  8. Agriculture:Natural rubber is used in agricultural applications, such as conveyor belts, hoses, and seals, due to its resistance to abrasion, chemicals, and weathering. Its durability and performance make it ideal for use in agricultural machinery and equipment.
  9. Fashion and Apparel: Natural rubber is used in the fashion and apparel industry for applications such as elastic bands, waistbands, and shoe soles. Its stretchability and elasticity provide comfort and flexibility in clothing and footwear.
  10. Adhesives and Coatings:Natural rubber is used in the production of adhesives, coatings, and sealants due to its ability to bond well with other materials. Its tackiness and flexibility make it ideal for use in these applications, providing strong adhesion and sealing properties.

Overall, the unique properties of natural rubber, including its elasticity, durability, resistance to wear, and chemical resistance, make it a versatile material with a wide range of uses in various industries.


In conclusion, natural rubber is a valuable and versatile material with a wide range of applications in various industries. Its unique properties make it an essential component in many products that we use in our everyday lives. However, it is important to ensure that natural rubber is produced sustainably, considering environmental and social aspects, to mitigate its impact on the environment and communities. With continued research and innovation, natural rubber is likely to remain a significant material in numerous industries while adopting sustainable practices for its production and use.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is natural rubber?

Natural rubber is a naturally occurring polymer obtained from the latex of rubber trees, primarily Hevea brasiliensis. It is a flexible, elastic, and highly durable material that has excellent mechanical properties.

How is natural rubber produced?

Natural rubber is produced by tapping the latex from rubber trees, which is then processed through various stages to coagulate the latex and remove impurities. The resulting rubber sheets or blocks are then dried, smoked, and rolled into bales for transportation and further processing.

What are the properties of natural rubber?

Natural rubber has unique properties, including high elasticity, excellent tensile strength, good abrasion resistance, water resistance, and electrical insulating properties. It is also highly flexible, resilient, and can withstand a wide range of temperatures.

What are the main uses of natural rubber?

Natural rubber is used in a wide range of applications, including automotive tires, belts, hoses, construction materials, medical gloves, consumer goods, industrial products, agricultural equipment, sports equipment, marine and aerospace applications, and more.

Is natural rubber eco-friendly?

Natural rubber is a renewable resource, as it is obtained from rubber trees that are sustainably managed in rubber plantations. However, there are concerns related to deforestation, habitat destruction, and labor rights in some rubber producing regions. Certified sustainable natural rubber programs, such as FSC and SNR-i, promote responsible rubber production practices.

Can natural rubber cause allergies?

Natural rubber latex can cause allergies in some individuals, especially those who are sensitized to latex proteins. This can result in allergic reactions, ranging from mild skin irritation to severe respiratory symptoms. It is important to use latex-free alternatives for individuals with latex allergies.

How can I care for natural rubber products?

To care for natural rubber products, it is recommended to keep them clean and dry, away from direct sunlight or heat, and avoid contact with oil, solvents, and harsh chemicals. Regular cleaning and proper storage can help prolong the lifespan of natural rubber products.

Can natural rubber be recycled?

Yes, natural rubber can be recycled through various methods such as mechanical recycling, chemical recycling, and pyrolysis. Recycled natural rubber can be used in the production of new rubber products or other applications, contributing to sustainability efforts.

What are some alternatives to natural rubber?

There are several alternatives to natural rubber, including synthetic rubbers such as styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), butyl rubber, and neoprene. These synthetic rubbers are derived from petrochemicals and have properties similar to natural rubber, but they may have different environmental impacts and performance characteristics.

Can natural rubber degrade over time?

Yes, natural rubber can degrade over time due to environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, heat, oxygen, and moisture. This can result in changes in the physical properties of natural rubber, such as reduced elasticity and increased brittleness. Proper storage and usage can help prevent premature degradation of natural rubber products.

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