Who Invented Exams ?

By: Udit Trivedi on 2022-07-28 07:50:05

Examinations, although being a method of assessing knowledge, are a major source of stress for most students. Have you ever pondered who designed exams and why? 

Origin of Exams USA

In the late 1800s, Henry Fischel, an American businessman and philanthropist, introduced the notion of examinations. China was the first country to adopt this idea on a national level, holding the world's first exam, the Imperial Examination.

Furthermore, some experts credit another specialist with the same name, Henry Fischel, with the creation of standardised evaluations. During the early twentieth century, he was a religious studies professor at Indiana University. Exams have been dreaded, despised, and disliked by students for a long time. As the exam date approaches, students feel increasing pressure to do well. Most of us are already debating whether or not to write an exam before we even get to the question paper.

The Imperial Examination System in Ancient China

Exams as a concept were developed in Ancient China, according to historical evidence. In 605 AD, the Sui Dynasty instituted the Imperial Examination System, often known as the 'Imperial Review,' to select candidates for certain government positions. The approach was thought to choose people based on merit rather than birth order.

Candidates who meet the qualifications would join a renowned group of government officials led by Emperor Yang of Sui. Under Empress Wu Zetian, the Tang Dynasty adopted the notion of written examinations to choose worthy candidates. She also instituted changes in the imperial review, in which members of the top bureaucracy came from modest backgrounds.

Who Invented Exams?

"The guy who devised tests," according to several sources, is Henry A. Fischel. However, because the information available on this statistic is so hazy, it's better to take it with a grain of salt. Henry A. Fischel was a well-known Indiana University professor of Near Eastern languages and cultures. He is credited with founding the Jewish Studies programme and the Department of Religious Studies at Indiana University.

Exams were developed in the late 19th century by Henry Fischel, an American businessman and philanthropist, according to historical texts. Furthermore, some experts credit another specialist with the same name, Henry Fischel, with the creation of standardised evaluations. During the early twentieth century, he was a religious studies professor at Indiana University.

Who Invented Exams in India?

The Kautilya Arthashastra was written in 313 BC by Chanakya or Vishnugupta during the Mauryan Period. Historians disagreed on Kautilya's identity, with some saying that he was the same person as Chanakya and Vishnugupta, but the majority disagreed. The Kautilya Arthashastra is the first known treatise that established the requirements for public servant recruitment.

In 1853, India became the first country in the world to introduce examinations. Civil officials in India were appointed by the East India Company's directors based on nominations until 1853. In 1853, the English Parliament eliminated the nomination system. From that point on, government workers were chosen through competitive tests, regardless of race. The tests were only held once a year in August in London, and candidates had to complete a mandatory horse-riding test as part of the process.

Following the East India Business's collapse, the British Civil Service assumed regulatory responsibility for the bankrupt British joint-stock company. The Indian Civil Service examinations were not held simultaneously in England and India until the advent of the Early Nationalists, sometimes known as the Moderates. This was accomplished by social reforms such as the formation of the Public Service Commission (PSC) and a House of Commons resolution.

Also Check List of Entrance Exams in India

Education in British India: 

The British built the modern education system in India, which is still in use today. They replaced the country's previous educational systems with English-based methods.

  • The 'Gurukula' method of education was prevalent in ancient and medieval India. Students and the teacher, or 'guru,' shared a home under this setup. However, India was known for numerous worldwide institutions at the time, notably Nalanda. From Sanskrit to the sacred books, and from mathematics to metaphysics, the guru taught whatever the youngster wished to know. The pupil stayed as long as she wanted or until the guru thought he had covered all of his bases. All learning was intertwined with nature and living, rather than being limited to memorizing facts.
  • The education system in India was destroyed as a result of the colonization period. For the first sixty years or so, the British paid no attention to improving the country's educational system. As their dominion grew and they began to control money and governance, it became necessary to educate the Indians in English in order to get personnel. Later, the British embarked on a quest to dismantle the country's traditional gurukulam system, sowing the seeds of the country's cultural and linguistic turmoil.
  • Since the early 1900s, Indians have pressed the British to enable native exam boards. As a result, the Calcutta University Commission was established(1917-19). In India, state boards of secondary education began to emerge. The first one was the United Province Board of High School and Intermediate Education. 
  • The UP board's jurisdiction comprised present-day Uttar Pradesh, the United Kingdom, Haryana, and the princely territories of Rajputana, Central India, and Gwalior. The UP Board of Trustees has said that they will not be able to manage as many students beyond 1927. The Indian government has proposed that each state in Uttar Pradesh have its own board, or that all states have a single board. That is how the Board of High School and Intermediate Education operated in 1929. 

 

FAQ's

Q1) Who invented exams?

Ans. The idea of exams was developed in the 19th century by Henry Fischel, a philanthropist and businessman, according to historical accounts. He devised tests to assess students' general topic knowledge as well as their ability to apply that information.

Q2) What was the IAS called during British rule?

Ans. The service became known as the Imperial Civil Service after the Revolt of 1857, when the company's reign ended and power was handed over to the British Crown (i.e., after 1886). It was then renamed the Indian Civil Service.

Q3) What were exams like in ancient India?

Ans. In ancient times, there was no such concept as an examination. Education was a lifelong endeavor. The gurus used to perform Samavartana in front of a large number of fellow gurus and the general audience after each stage of learning. During the Vedic period, the Vedas were primarily used in the curriculum.

Q4) When did the first administered exam take place? 

Ans. The first Cambridge assessments were held on December 14, 1958, and invigilators travelled by rail from Cambridge to various regions of England to deliver the examinations.